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WTF is a Closure?

In order to understand closure we are going to examine some code. In the example below we have a parent function that has a variable par and we return another function called child which also has a variable inside called chi.

Inside the child function we are going to console.log the global variable workshop, the parent variable par, and the child variable chi. With the declaration of me we will invoke the parent function when we invoke the me variable.

const workshop = 'JavaScript'
function parent() {
const par = 'tyler'
return function child() {
const chi = 'clark'
console.log(workshop, par, chi)
const me = parent()

A closure is an innner function that has access to its lexican scopes, which includes its own scope, its parent scope, and the global scope. The child() function is a closure and it has access to its own const, the parent const, and the global const.

When code const me = parent() is executed the parent function still retains access to the parent's const.

Closures do not close over a value, they only close over variables. If the global const value changes, a child function reference to it will change as well. Closures only keep their connection to variables alive even though its surrounding function executes.

Closures also make variables privite from the outside scope. There is no wa to access the const chi from anywhere else except from inside its function, this hides implementation details which change while programming towards interfaces.

We use closures almost everyday, a common implementation of a clousre is a callback function like function.

[1].map((a)) => a)

Its callback is a closure because it's a nested function within a function that has access to its parent's scopes.

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